More information on each phonics phase, including sound clips, can be found by clicking here:
In this phase children will continue practising what they have learned from phase 1, including ‘sound talk’. They will also be taught the phonemes (sounds) for a number of letters (graphemes) and that a phoneme can be represented by more than one letter, e.g. /ll/ as in b-e-ll. They may use pictures and hand movements to help them remember these.
Now the children will be seeing letters and words, as well as hearing them. They will be shown how to make whole words by pushing magnetic or wooden letters together to form little words, reading little words in a variety of situations and breaking up words into individual sounds which will help them with their spelling. These will be simple words made up of two or three phonemes (sounds), e.g. a-m, a-t, c-a-t, s-u-n, t-i-ck, b-e-ll.
These little words are often referred to as VC and CVC words e.g. in the word bell- b= consonant e= vowel ll= consonant
Children will also practise oral blending and segmenting skills on a daily basis (see Phase 1). They need lots of practise at doing this.
The children will also learn several tricky words: the, to, I, go, no (phonically irregular words)
Saying the sounds
Your child will be taught how to pronounce the phonemes (sounds) correctly to make blending easier. Teachers help children to listen to different letter sounds such as s and f and recognise the different sound that each makes. They will say the sounds like this ‘sssss’ not ‘suh’ and ‘fffff’ not ‘fuh’. Wherever possible it is a good idea to leave out the ‘uh’ sound because it makes blending easier and words sound correct, e.g. ‘mmmmm-aaaaa-tttttt’=mat.
Ways to support your child at home:
Magnetic Letters- Buy magnetic letters for your fridge or use with a tin tray. Find out which letters have been taught and have fun finding these with your child and place them on the magnetic surface. This can also be done with foam letters in the bath.
Making Little words together- Make little words together using your magnetic letters, e.g. it, up, am, top, dig, run, met, pick. As you select the letters, say them aloud: ‘a-m, am’ ‘m-e-t, met’. This is blending which is important for reading.
Make up a writing box- Little white boards and pens, and magic boards are fun to try out spellings and practise handwriting. Don’t forget lots of encouragement and praise.
Make or buy an alphabet poster.
Getting ready for writing
Teachers will model how to form letters (graphemes) correctly in order that children can achieve a fluent and legible handwriting style. These skills develop over a long period of time. A child’s ability to correctly form a letter is a separate skill to phonics. Holding a pen or pencil needs considerable co-ordination and practise in making small movements with hands and fingers. In the early phonic phases children can use letter cards or magnetic letters to demonstrate their phonic knowledge.
Writing in lower case letters
We will be teaching lower case letters, as well as capital letters. As most writing will be in lower case letters it is useful if you can use these at home. A good start is for your child to write his/her name correctly starting with a capital letter followed by lower case letters.
Your child’s class teacher can advise you on the handwriting style that is taught and how you can help at home.
Ways to support your child at home:
Using their whole body- For handwriting children need to be well co-ordinated through their whole body, not just in their hands and fingers. Games which help co-ordination include throwing balls at a target and bouncing balls on the spot. Also skipping on the spot, throwing a Frisbee and picking up pebbles from the beach.
Hand and finger play- Action rhymes such as Incy Wincy Spider, one potato, two potato, and Tommy Thumb are great fun and get their hands and fingers moving.
Playing with salt dough or clay can also help to strengthen little fingers as does cookery and using simple tool kits.
Hand- eye co-ordination- Pouring water into jugs and cups of different sizes , sweeping up with a dustpan and brush, cutting, sticking, tracing, threading beads, completing puzzles, peeling off stickers and sticking them in the right place- these all help hand- eye co-ordination.
Pencil hold- The ‘pincer’ movement needs to be practised- this is important as they try holding a pencil properly as they write. Provide them with kitchen tongs and see if they can pick up small objects. Move on to challenging them to pick up smaller things with chop sticks, then with tweezers, e.g. little cubes, dried peas, sugar cubes.
These are the recordings of the first sounds, or phonemes we teach your child at school during Phase 2:
You can listen to all of the letter sounds as recorded by our Year 1 teacher Mrs Gladen. They are listed here in the order that they are taught.